At a time when many education systems are opting for so-called "inclusive" school policies, questions of equity and social justice are at the heart of the school debate. By highlighting the barriers to educational success for all students, these notions help to shed light on the (dys)functioning of systems and the policy choices undertaken. With a growing body of literature on the subject, reflection on equity and justice in education now relies on a solid body of data and references. Among the range of authors who have addressed the issue, we have chosen to highlight the concept of social justice as developed by Nancy Fraser (2007; 2008). As a reference author on the subject, her work allows us to understand the issues of justice in a contemporary and multiethnic society. From a critical perspective, her work allows us to conceptualize social justice at the crossroads of three dimensions of justice: distribution, recognition and representation. Following in the footsteps of other authors (Bell, 2007; Hackman, 2005), we believe that the concept of social justice makes it possible to pertinently analyze the issues at stake in contemporary education systems, particularly on multicultural issues. It makes it possible to question the distribution of educational resources, “equity measures” for example, the issue of stereotypes and prejudices, questioning recognition and cultural identities, and the issue of school participation and governance: how power is shared and made possible for all. It also allows for the conceptualization of education for social justice, i.e. a training and transformation approach, not only to develop critical awareness but also to enable professionals to "interrupt and change oppressive patterns and behaviors in themselves and in the institutions and communities of which they are a part" (Bell, 2007, p. 2). The objective of this contribution is twofold. First of all, to propose a model for analyzing social justice issues in education, and particularly in multicultural education, from the macro level (structures, systems) to the micro level (pedagogical practices) and second, to assess its relevance through three examples of educational research. As part of the " Social Justice in Education: between Critical Reflection and Professional Practices" symposium, this contribution will lay the foundations of a common theoretical framework.