It has been hypothesised that the human neurocognitive architecture may include a perceptual ratio processing system (RPS) that supports symbolic fraction understanding. In the present study, we aimed to provide further evidence for the existence of the RPS by exploring whether individuals with a range of math skills are indeed perceptually sensitive to non-symbolic ratio magnitudes. We also aimed to test to what extent the RPS may underlie symbolic fraction processing in those individuals. In a match-to-sample task, typical adults, elementary school children, and adults with dyscalculia were asked to match a non-symbolic ratio (i.e., target) to one of two non-symbolic ratios (i.e., the match and distractor). We found that all groups of participants were sensitive to the ratio between the match and the distractor, suggesting a common reliance on the RPS. This ratio sensitivity was also observed in another group of typical adults who had to choose which of two symbolic fractions match a non-symbolic ratio, indicating that the RPS may also contribute to symbolic fraction understanding. However, no ratio dependence was observed when participants had to choose which of two symbolic fractions match another symbolic fraction, suggesting that reliance on the RPS in symbolic fraction processing is limited and may not support exact fraction processing.